In this DBMS tutorial, let’s start by learning what a database and its management system are.
A database is a group or collection of associated data.
A database management system is software for collecting, storing, organizing, and getting the data back. It helps the user to have their data stored in large amounts and retrieve it whenever required. DBMS consists of programs that handle the database. It allows users to create a database as per their needs.
Fig: Flow of Database Management System
History of Database management System
Below are some of the important historical indicators for Database management systems.
- In 1960, the first database management system was designed by Charles Bachman(he is also known as the father of database management systems.
- In the year 1970, the IMS-IBM information system was introduced by CODD.
- In 1976, the entity-relationship model or generally known as the ER model, was introduced and defined by Peter Chen.
- A Relationship model was widely accepted by the users in the year 1980.
- In 1985 a new model of Database was developed and introduced known as Object-Oriented Database Management System.
- By the year 1990, the Object-oriented model was spread like wildfire, and it was incorporated with the relational model.
- A personal DBMS called Microsoft Ships MS Access was introduced, which replaced all other Personal DBMS Software’s.
- In 1995, the world’s first Internet application for DBMS was released.
- For database processing, XML was added in the year 1997, and many sellers begin to introduce XML to their products.
Need for DBMS
- Object management and query processing
It is very difficult to store and organize huge amounts of data; DBMS helps the user to organize and store data in such a manner.
To organize data in DBMS, we need queries. By executing queries such as INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, etc., we can easily store and manipulate data.
- Redundancy and Inconsistency control
Redundancy refers to the duplication of data. If data is stored twice or multiple times, it becomes very difficult to organize or retrieve data and becomes inconsistent; hence DBMS provides data redundancy and inconsistency control.
- Memory management and Indexing
DBMS provides efficient memory management by reducing data duplication. Without DBMS, every individual file is indexed with objects, so query operations require an entire file scan, whereas, with DBMS, Indexing of the objects takes place in database Schema. This helps in the faster retrieval of data and saves memory.
- Control of Concurrency and Transaction management
When data is accessed simultaneously, it can lead to inconsistency in the file. DBMS provides a way to deal with this kind of data inconsistency while allowing users to access data simultaneously(concurrently).DBMS provides a concept called ACID(atomicity, durability, isolation, consistency) properties to ensure efficient transaction management without data inconsistency or corruption.
- Access Control
In a database, many users can have access to the data where they can steal, delete, or even harm the whole database. A DBMS can allow various users and determine which part and how much data they can access from the database hence helps in removing redundancy.
Types of DBMS
There are four types of DBMS:
- Hierarchical database
- Network database
- Relational database
- Object oriented database
Let’s discuss the above types:
- Hierarchical database: In this type of database, the data is arranged in a tree-like model. The data is stored from top to bottom (branch-like). There is a Parent and child whose relationship is established in the model. A parent can have multiple child nodes, but a child can have only one parent.
- Network database: In this type of database, unlike the Hierarchical model, the network model allows a child to have more than one parent. This helps in a complex relationship situation. Also, in this type of model, entities are addressed as graphs so that they can be accessed by multiple nodes.
- Relational database: This model is widely used in the Information technology world as it is one of the easiest types of DBMS to work with. This model helps in the process of normalization of the data into rows and columns.
- Object-oriented database: In this type of data model, the data is saved in the form of objects. It is stored in a structure called classes. It describes both data and classes and manipulates the value of data members’ values and operations.
Applications of DBMS
In this Tutorial, let’s see some applications of DBMS in real life.
|1)||Banking||In the banking sector ,DBMS helps to keep records of the customers and their transactions completely in an organized manner and have secure documentation of all the records and day to day transactions. For instance records related to loans, mortgage, Payments , deposits etc.|
|2)||Manufacturing||In huge manufacturing industries they will have to keep records related to their chain and production, Inventories , transactions and many more.
|3)||Airlines||In airlines DBMS helps to keep an exact record of customer details, employee details, flight arrival and departure and many more things. Using DBMS it makes it very easy for the staff to maintain a fixed record of the Ins and outs of the Airlines.|
|4)||HR Management||Companies with thousands of employees require a DBMS because they cant maintain any record handwritten related to the salaries ,personal information of the employees such as Phone number, address, qualification and many more things, hence a DBMS can help to maintain all the things under one platform so that it is easy to access and maintain.|
|5)||Finance||In financial institutions ,when people take out mortgages or loans they need a secure space to maintain all the records with access control and easy maintainability , hence DBMS comes handy in the field of finance.|
|6)||Telecommunication||The conversations, customer details, staff details, In calls and outcalls, product information and many more things require a perfect place of storage .DBMS is used to store all the above and many more things in the field of telecommunication.|
|7)||Sales||Used to store and keep record of the number of sales , inventory, loss ,profit , margin etc.|
|8)||Universities||In schools, colleges or university it is very crucial to keep records of the academic performance of every student in a safe environment , along with that student information such as register number, phone number, email , address etc. needs to be stored. Apart from student details a school has many employees such as teacher, office staff, helpers , guards etc. a university also has to keep track of all their details hence DBMS helps very much in maintaining all such things , for all the above reasons DBMS is used in universities.|
Popular DBMS software
- IBM DB2
- Maria DB and many more software’s are used in today’s works for Database Management system.
Advantages of Database Management System
- Controlling data redundancy- data is recorded in only one place in the database, and it is not duplicated. It saves storage space.
- Data consistency-data items appear only once show the updated values immediately available to all users.
- Back-up and recovery procedures- it automatically creates the backup of data and restores data if required.
- Data independence- There is a suppression of data structure of databases from application programs that use the data is called data independence.
- Enforcing data integrity-In the database approach, forcing data integrity is easier. There are various integrity constraints that are identified by the database designer during the database design.
- Data sharing-the data stored in the database can be shared among multiple users of all application programs.
- Data security-DBMS ensures that the only means of access to the database is through an authorized channel. To ensure security, DBMS provides security tools such as user code and password.
Disadvantages of DBMS
- The cost of hardware and software: Processor with high speed of data processing is required. DBMS is quite expensive for a company to consider the overhead cost of implementing a New database system.
- System failure: When a computer system containing the database fails, all users have to wait until the system is functional again. A permanent damage may also occur to the database if the database or the application program fails.
- Explicit backup and recovery: To make shared databases accurate and available at all times, a system using online updating requires explicit backup and recovery procedures.
- Cost of data conversion: When a computer fine based on a system is replaced with the database system, then the data stored in a data file must be converted into database files.
I hope this DBMS tutorial helped you in gaining knowledge related to the Data Base Management System. Enroll today for free online courses with certificates at GreatLearning.
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